With all the information out there, it’s difficult to know which kinds of molecules are responsible for what, when it comes down to using CBD, what are we looking for. Of course, it’s a complex topic, but you don’t have to understand emulsifiers or be a chemist to get the gist.
Today, we’re going to present two of the more common compounds in the whole of the hemp plant, to contrast them against one another. Cannabidivarin (CBDV) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in Cannabis while Cannabidiol is similar in this way, they both operate in a different effect with our own endogenous cannabinoid system.
Cannabichromene is similar in this way.
The Mechanisms of Action
Enter CBC and CBDV.
Phytocannabinoids are the materials found in plants themselves. While endocannabinoids are your body’s naturally produced cannabinoids, phytocannabinoids are the ones found to act on the endogenous system and mediate various kinds of effects.
Now that we’ve clarified that, let’s discuss what is now known about how these two interact.
Basically, as the endocannabinoid system is a biological system composed of lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors, and cannabinoid receptor proteins that are expressed throughout the vertebrate central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, Cannabidivarin and Cannabichromene are influencers among them.
Since these two molecules are so influential, let's discuss them.
The Properties of Cannabidivarin (CBDV)
Just like CBD and CBC, CBDV does not carry any psychoactive properties.
Instead, the molecule can be ingested without the "high" commonly associated with high THC cannabis. The compound has been studied to show two primary therapeutic actions:
Anticonvulsant: The compound has been shown to provide anticonvulsant properties in a range of seizure models. This points to the compound's potential use in the treatment of epilepsy.
Anti-Nausea: Both THCV and CBDV have been shown to possess anti-nausea properties. This points to the use of these compounds in the treatment of conditions that carry nausea-inducing side effects or medicinal treatments including cancer, motion sickness, and other illness.
Recent research is showing the medical potential of CBDV to treat epilepsy and other neurological conditions. With human testing yet to come, this cannabinoid has shown to be an effective anticonvulsant and antiepileptic in mice studies.
The University of Reading, in London, also stated that CBD and CBDV show significant antiepileptic and anti-seizure properties.
These findings are not just mere speculation. Here are two sources to back up these statements:
To start, Justin Gover, CEO of GW Pharmaceuticals stated: “CBDV has the potential to become an important new treatment option in the field of epilepsy”. This when answering in regards to an already filed patent for the use of CBDV as a treatment for seizures.
A seizure has many symptoms, of which convulsions are amongst the most worrying and common ones.
Not only does CBDV come to aid in the prevention of seizures, but a study has also shown that it helps prevent convulsions. Meaning that even if a patient goes into an epileptic seizure, they might not experience the convulsions with the aid of this cannabinoid.
Here's a brief from the study:
Cannabidivarin, also known as cannabidivarol or CBDV, is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found within Medical Cannabis. It is one of over 100 cannabinoids identified from the Cannabis plant that can modulate the physiological activity of cannabis or marijuana. Compared to its homolog, Cannabidiol, CBDV is shortened by two methyl (CH2) groups on its side chain. Notably, both Cannabidiol and CBDV have demonstrated anticonvulsant activity in animal and human models and are demonstrating promising clinical trial results. Other cannabinoids with some evidence of anti-epileptic activity include Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol acid.
None of these studies are conclusive. Most, if not all, stress the need for further and more in-depth research though.
CBDV is thought to be an appetite suppressant without the secondary effects common to most pharmaceuticals prescribed for similar conditions.
One thought currently in the sphere of medical cannabis practice is that an isolated form of this compound could be used as an appetite suppressant, without all of the dangerous side effects often associated with that form of treatment. Here’s a study that shows some of the work being done on that front, Anti-Obesity Drugs: A Review about Their Effects and Safety.
While the primary components of cannabis, CBD and THC, have been shown to modulate many of their physiological effects through their binding to the cannabinoid-1 (CB1R) and cannabinoid-2 (CB2R) receptors, the investigational cannabinoids with anticonvulsant action mostly use mechanisms that do not involve these two endocannabinoid receptors.
The anti-epileptic activity of CBD and CBDV is thought to be modulated by their effects on transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), also known as the capsaicin receptor, which is a member of a large family of ion channels that are involved in the onset and progression of several types of epilepsy. CBD and CBDV have been shown to dose-dependently activate and then desensitize TRPV1 as well as TRPV2 and TRPA1 channels. Desensitization of these ion channels is a potential mechanism by which these molecules cause a reduction of neuronal hyperexcitability that contributes to epileptic activity and seizures.
CBDV has also been shown to inhibit the activity of diacylglycerol (DAG) lipase-α, the primary enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG).
The clinical implications of this are unclear however, as this interaction has not been shown to affect CBDV's anticonvulsant activity.
What Are the Benefits of CBC?
Cannabichromene has been studied both alone and in tandem with other cannabinoids to show many promising potential therapeutic uses. The following potential benefits and treatment of conditions have been observed:
Anti-Acne: Along with CBDV and THCV this compound shows promise as highly efficient, novel anti-acne agents through potent anti-inflammatory action.
Antibacterial/Antifungal: This molecule has been shown to exhibit strong antibacterial properties and mild to moderate antifungal activity.
Anti-Depressant: As part of the trifecta of compounds, this molecule has been shown to display significant anti-depressant actions.
Anti-Diarrheal: By reducing inflammation, reduced gastrointestinal hypermotility in rats displayed anti-diarrheal properties.
Anti-Inflammatory: By indirectly modulating the endocannabinoid system (by not interacting with CB1 or CB2) this compound has been observed to work well with other phytocannabinoids like THC to provide anti-inflammatory actions.
Like all other cannabinoids, CBC interacts with the body's endocannabinoid system (ECS) to produce its effects. This compound works differently than other cannabinoids. While most others activate the cannabinoid receptors in your ECS, Cannabichromene does not.
Instead, CBC interacts with the vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1). Both of these receptors are linked to pain perception.
When these receptors are activated, the natural processes which degrade the body's endocannabinoids (cannabinoids produced by the body) are affected. The result is increased levels of endocannabinoids like anandamide and 2-AG.
Anandamide, is a fatty acid neurotransmitter derived from the non-oxidative metabolism of eicosatetraenoic acid, an essential ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid. The name is taken from the Sanskrit word ananda, which means "joy, bliss, delight", and amide.
Since CBC does not interact with the standard CB1 and CB2 receptors, this molecule is non-psychoactive meaning it does not produce a high. Unlike CBD however, CBC has been observed to make the psychoactive effects of THC stronger.
It’s very important to understand what these molecules are and how they work, as best we can at this time.
We, at Revival CBD, are all about education. So look out for more articles of this ilk that will clear the air around various kinds of molecules found in cannabis.
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